Virtual museum of Russian aggression.

Virtual museum of Russian aggression.



Conflict changes the way people live. It also changes their language. New concepts, metaphors, formal and informal words appear. Besides, speech becomes both a field and an instrument of war. To make the language of the conflict understandable, we keep its dictionary.



Use of armed force by a state against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of another state. The use not only and not so much of regular armed forces for this purpose, but also of mercenaries and instigated insurgents does not negate the fact of aggression, but gives it a special quality, which is usually described by the concept of "hybrid aggression".


Forced inclusion of (part of) the sovereign territory of a state into another state, illegal expansion of the territory of a state at the expense of another state. The precondition for the annexation of a territory is the establishment of control over it through occupation. Cases of annexation are unusual for contemporary international conflicts and are normally strongly condemned by the international community. At the same time, a common legal approach is not to recognize the fact of annexation as a fait accompli. Based on this, Russia's actions in relation to Crimea are qualified as an attempt at annexation through temporary occupation.


A public movement organized by the pro-government Party of Regions in opposition to Euromaidan. Antimaidan participants were gathered for rallies, lodged in tent camps, transported by trains and buses to cities (primarily to Kyiv) in order to demonstrate public support for the Yanukovych regime by a part of Ukrainian society. During the Revolution of Dignity, there were clashes between Euromaidan and Antimaidan activists. After the collapse of the Yanukovych regime, part of the Antimaidan participants joined the anti-state rebellion in the eastern and southern regions of Ukraine, and contributed to the Russian occupation of Crimea.


Public movement, part of the Euromaidan. Participants used private vehicles in protests, patrolling streets, delivering luggage and activists within and between towns and cities.



Individuals belonging to Cossack groups, paramilitary formations with a particular dress code, demeanor and mindset. They imitate the traditions of the Cossack troops of the 16th - early 20th century. According to the Russian law, registered Cossack organizations headed by atamans have permission to carry out special and military training, can contribute to law enforcement, civil and territorial defense, protection of the state border, as well as military and patriotic education of young people. A significant part of the Cossacks have served in military and law enforcement formations, participated in hostilities.

Crimean Khanate

The historical state of the Crimean Tatars that existed from the 15th to 18th century on the territory of the Crimean Peninsula, southern regions of Ukraine and the North Caucasus. It was annexed by the Russian Empire. Tamga, the hereditary sign of the Giray dynasty that ruled the khanate, is an element of the modern national flag of the Crimean Tatars.

Crimean referendum

The event held on March 16, 2014 on the territory of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol under the Russian occupation with the aim of legalizing it. The Russian side presents it as an "expression of popular will", although there was no legal basis for its conduct; the wording of the questions precluded the preservation of the political status quo; the voting process did not meet the basic standards of the electoral procedure. The announced result of 96.57% voting for "reunification with Russia" is seen as rigged by the organizers.

Crimean Spring

Also known as the Russian Spring. This metaphor is used by Russian propaganda to describe the events of February and March 2014 in Crimea. In addition to empathizing the season, the term also serves to promote the concept of the revival of pro-Russian forces in Crimea, their self-organization and an allegedly decisive role in the separation of the peninsula from Ukraine.


In the classical sense, the word cyborg means a cybernetic organism that usually has superhuman strength or intelligence. The word gained a new meaning in the context of the Russian-Ukrainian armed conflict in September 2014. Then, a pro-Russian militant explaining why they couldn't defeat Ukrainian heroes for more than three months said, "…I don't know who's sitting there, but they are not people — they are cyborgs". From this moment on, defenders of Donetsk Airport and participants in the battles around it began to be called cyborgs, emphasizing their extraordinary combat abilities. This name was actively used by Ukrainian politicians and information units of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Through the media, public opinion began to form about the need to defend the airport and its strategic importance. In early 2015, the online dictionary of modern Ukrainian language and slang "Myslovo" recognized the lexeme "cyborg" as the most mentioned word on the Internet in 2014.


Little green men

An unofficial name for Russian military servicemen who participated in the patrolling, blocking and seizure of Ukrainian facilities in Crimea in February and March 2014. The term was coined as a reaction to the green color of military uniforms and their sudden appearance and alien-like seeming anonymity.



Meganom (Crimean: Meganom) is a cape, a tract in the Crimea from Mount Alchak in the west to the mouth of the Koz River in the east, including the Kopsel and Koz valleys.



Temporary occupation of (part of) a sovereign territory by the armed forces of a foreign state, committed without the permission or invitation of the legitimate government. Ukrainian law defines Crimea and certain areas of Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts as temporarily occupied territories, and the Russian Federation as an occupying power.

Oputskyy Nature Reserve

Oputskyy Nature Reserve is a protected area in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukraine). The reserve is designed to preserve in its natural state the typical steppe landscapes of the Crimean peninsula and aqua complexes of the Black Sea. The Uzunlar virgin feather massif, which stretches for 5 km along the Black Sea coast west of Uzunlar Lake, borders on the Oputsky Nature Reserve. Here are well preserved steppe groups, where the spring aspect is formed by tulips and other rare ephemeroids. This area is reserved for the expansion of the Opuk Nature Reserve.


People's mayor

Fictional position of the head of a municipality. On February 23, 2014, the organizers of a pro-Russian rally in Sevastopol declared businessman Alexei Chaly the "people's mayor" of the city. "People's mayors" in cities and later "people's governors" in regions counterposed themselves to the legitimate authorities. The attribute "people's" was supposed to indicate a mandate "from the people," whereas in fact it came from anti-government forces supported by the Russian Federation.


Red directors

«Red directors» — are representatives of the Soviet industrial and managerial class who remained in senior positions even after the collapse of the USSR.

Revolution of Dignity / Euromaidan

An all-Ukrainian mass protest movement against the regime of President Viktor Yanukovych, which started in November 2013 and ended in reformatting of the Ukrainian government in February 2014. The main reasons for popular dissatisfaction were the pro-Russian course, government corruption, authoritarian tendencies and excessive use of violence against peaceful protesters. The main events took place around the protesters' tent camp on the central square of Kyiv – the Independence Square which is popularly known as the Maidan in Ukraine. The predominantly peaceful nature of the actions changed as a result of the confrontation between activists and law enforcement officers, during which more than a hundred people were killed.


Rotation is the regular replacement or mutual exchange of personnel, units, or military units that perform tasks in difficult, complex, or unfavorable conditions for a certain period of time.


Tuzla Island

Sandy island in the Kerch Strait, belongs to the administrative territory of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. It formed in 1925 as a result of a storm which washed away a part the narrow spit stretching from the Taman Peninsula (Russia). Russia disputed the status of the island, claiming joint ownership of the navigable part of the Kerch Strait with Ukraine – the Kerch-Yenikale Canal, located between Tuzla and the Crimean Peninsula. In 2003, Russia provoked an international crisis by unauthorized construction of a dam from the Taman coast to the Tuzla Island. Following the Russian-Ukrainian summit, the problem was resolved. Now the causeway of the bridge connecting Russia with the temporarily occupied Crimea passes through the island.